NASA/JPL Edu supports science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education by providing NASA and JPL activities, resources and materials to educators and students in grades K-12 as well as STEM internships and research opportunities to higher education students and faculty.


Space-Themed Halloween Supplies

When Halloween rolls around at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, we really let our nerd flags fly. Pumpkin carving contests turn into serious engineering design challenges and costume inspiration runs the gamut from real science to science fiction.

This year, join us in all our geekdom with these spooky (and educational!) space activities from the Education Office at NASA/JPL:


Create a Halloween Pumpkin Like a NASA Engineer

Project: Create a Halloween Pumpkin Like a NASA Engineer

Get tips and inspiration for creating a stellar pumpkin from the same people who send spacecraft to other planets!


Mysteries of the Solar System and Beyond Slideshow

Slideshow: Mysteries of the Solar System and Beyond

Strange things are happening all around the solar system. See if you can solve these space mysteries before finding out how scientists did it.


 

TAGS: Halloween, Pumpkin, Mysteries, Stranger Things, Science, Engineering, STEM

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Update – Sept. 20, 2017: Due to the number of requests we have received, this bulletin board registration is now closed. In the event more materials become available, an update will be posted here. All materials are also available to download at the links below. 


This year has been full of exciting discoveries at NASA as we learn more about our solar system as well as star systems light years away.

Want a cool way to share these missions and discoveries with your classroom? Sign up online to receive the latest classroom bulletin board set from the Educator Resource Center at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Note:

  • Bulletin board mailers are limited to teachers at U.S.-based institutions.
  • Available while supplies last.
  • Requests will be fulfilled in the order they are received.

Here’s what’s included:


Exoplanet Space Tourism Posters

Exoplanet Space Tourism Posters

NASA’s Kepler space telescope, which has already discovered more than 1,000 planets beyond our solar system, continues to identify more and more of these so-called exoplanets – some of which have features similar to Earth. (Learn more about these worlds on NASA's Exoplanet Exploration website.) This popular poster set imagines what life would be like on these distant worlds.

Note: The bulletin board materials will include a small sample of the full set, which can be downloaded here.


Reading, Writing and Rings Activities

Reading, Writing and Rings

Closer to home, September 15 will mark the end of the Cassini mission, which has spent nearly 13 years orbiting the ringed giant Saturn. Images and science from Cassini have shaped our understanding of Saturn and its mysterious moons, and continue to provide wonder to students. This collection of activities will get students using reading and writing to explore the Cassini mission’s science at Saturn.

Find out more about the Cassini mission and its Grand Finale on Sept. 15, 2017.


Saturn Postcards

Saturn Postcards

Take in some of Cassini’s best views of Saturn with these NASA postcards featuring images from the mission!

Explore more images from the Cassini mission at Saturn.


Visit our educator resources page for more downloads and online resources.

TAGS: materials, educator resources, educator resource center, classroom resources, bulletin board, teaching materials

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JPL engineering Michael Staab (standing) with the last class of interns for NASA's Cassini mission at Saturn

For more than 22 years, since before NASA's Cassini mission even launched, flight controllers have invited summer interns to NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to help make the mission at Saturn happen. But with the spacecraft's journey ending in September, the current summer interns will be Cassini’s last.

Meet the students and learn what role they're playing in the nearly 13-year mission at Saturn.
› See the full story and image gallery on the Cassini Mission website


Explore JPL’s summer and year-round internship programs and apply at: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/edu/intern

The laboratory’s STEM internship and fellowship programs are managed by the JPL Education Office. Extending the NASA Office of Education’s reach, JPL Education seeks to create the next generation of scientists, engineers, technologists and space explorers by supporting educators and bringing the excitement of NASA missions and science to learners of all ages.

TAGS: Cassini Mission, Saturn, Intern

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This summer, while many of us were sleeping in and avoiding heavy school work, lots of exciting things were happening in and around our solar system! Here's a guide to launching the 2016 school year right and turning those stellar events into educational connections from NASA. 

Science on Fire

An image of the Soberanes fire, in northern California near Big Sur
This false-color image of the Soberanes fire in Northern California, near Big Sur, was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft on July 28, 2016.

Here at home, on Earth, it is fire season in many places in the Northern Hemisphere. Fire season comes about with warmer temperatures, dry air, and dry brush. Once a fire gets started in these conditions, it can rapidly spread and become out of control, especially when high winds are involved. This summer has already witnessed some dangerous fires including the Sand Fire in Southern California and the Soberanes Fire near Big Sur on the Central California coast. Beyond the immediate threat from flames, smoke degrades air quality and burn scars leave hillsides vulnerable to rain-induced mudslides.

NASA satellites and airborne instruments are helping scientists better understand wildfires and their impacts on our changing climate. And in the immediate term, they are helping firefighters track wildfires and respond to people and structures in risk areas.

Check out JPL's latest Teachable Moment to find out more about how scientists are studying wildfires, what they're learning and why it's important. And get links to two new lessons for students in grades 3-12 that have students use NASA data, algebra and geometry to approximate burn areas, fire-spread rate and fire intensity. (You can also go straight to the new lessons at: Fired Up Over Math: Studying Wildfires from Space and Pixels on Fire)

And speaking of Earth science, find out how you can get a free bulletin board featuring posters and lithographs about NASA Earth science and missions for your classroom!

Greetings from Jupiter

Watch a recap of the July 4 excitement as NASA's Juno spacecraft entered orbit around Jupiter.

On July 4, just in time for a fireworks spectacle, the Juno spacecraft went into orbit around Jupiter. Juno launched from Earth aboard a huge rocket and had been hurtling toward Jupiter for nearly five years. Getting into orbit around Jupiter was a real nail-biter here at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (which helps manage the mission) and we are all very happy everything went as planned. Juno’s mission is to study the origin, core and magnetic fields of our solar system’s largest planet. Juno will orbit Jupiter for only about 20 months before Jupiter’s intense radiation environment takes a toll on the spacecraft.

Communicating with a spacecraft as far away as Juno is a challenge that involves a lot of planning and teamwork. Try out this new lesson for young learners that demonstrates this process and provides practice with number concepts, counting and geometry, and data collection in a concrete, active manner. 

Wish you had your very own Juno spacecraft you could use to uncover secrets beneath Jupiter? Check out this easy-to-build Juno model that uses household objects and can be used in a game with friends and family!

Explore more about Juno with these related lessons and videos: 


TAGS: Back-to-School, Juno, Wildfires, Bulletin Board, Lessons, Activities, DIY

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Image of Earth

UPDATE - Sept. 13, 2016: Our Earth Science Bulletin Board materials are out of stock. To download and print out the resources, click on the links next to each product.


Climate change is a hot topic and one that's become a key part of science education. Introduce students to NASA's climate-science research and Earth satellites with this free bulletin board from the Educator Resource Center at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The set of posters, lithographs and stickers helps visually engage students while teaching them about topics such as sea-level rise, clouds and greenhouse gases. Note:Materials are available on a first-come-first-served basis.

The Earth Science Bulletin Board includes:

Sea-Level Rise Poster

Sea-Level Rise Mini Poster

This poster describes the science behind sea-level rise, who's affected and what NASA is doing to help.

Earth's Carbon is Off Balance Poster

Earth's Carbon is Off Balance Mini Poster

See what NASA scientists are doing to understand if our land and ocean can continue to absorb carbon dioxide at the current rate – and for how long.

NASA JPL Edu Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity lithograph poster

Earth Lithograph

Get fun facts about Earth science on this two-sided lithograph featuring a stunning image of our home planet.

A Wild World of Clouds poster

Wild World of Clouds Poster

This poster illustrates how NASA satellites study clouds from space.


Additional materials may include rulers, stickers and lithographs featuring NASA Earth science missions.

TAGS: Bulletin Board, Back-to-School, Earth Science, Resources, Educator Resource Center

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The NCAS Spring 2016 project managers pose with their rovers

Thursday, April 14


3 p.m. - Firsts and Thanks ... Until Next Time

Once the group photos were taken and the rovers dismantled, students gathered in the conference room where they had spent most of the last four days. Where rover parts, notebooks and laptops once stood, now it was just 40 suitcases laying in wait for the return home. But the experience wouldn’t end until awards and several rounds of thanks were given to the organizers, mentors and students who made the experience possible – and as program coordinators Roslyn Soto and Eddie Gonzales were sure to point out, contributed to a number of firsts for the National Community College Aerospace Scholars program.

The networking challenge and planetarium show were among some of the firsts. As was the first female majority among the team’s project managers (three of four were women) as well as the number of women participating in the on-site experience overall.

The women of NCAS Spring 2016
The women of NCAS Spring 2016 pose for a photo with their teams' rovers. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Kim Orr

By the time the winning team was announced, the students were so full with congratulations that they seemed to have almost forgotten there was a winning team at all. But it didn’t dull the Blue Team’s celebration when, without further ado, they were announced as the winners by (another first) the smallest margin ever.

The Blue Team and their mentor, Amelia Quon, celebrate their win
The Blue Team celebrates their win (left) along with their mentor Amelia Quon (right). Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Kim Orr

Soto and Gonzales said the level of teamwork – even between teams – was one of the biggest standouts of this session of NCAS and urged future teams to take note.

“The collaboration between teams was a thing of beauty,” said Gonzales. "It felt more like one huge team versus four individual teams. They helped each other in every facet of the competition and were graceful and showed incredible sportsmanship like I've never witnessed before."

With round after round of applause and standing ovations for Soto and Gonzales, the students, mentors and program coordinators said their final goodbyes, and by 2 p.m., the once hectic conference room was dark and quite … that is until the next crop of hopeful students arrives this fall.

> Learn more about NCAS and apply for the Fall 2016 session

> See a collection of photos from the Spring 2016 session

> Explore all the internship and fellowship programs at JPL and apply


10 a.m. - The Final Challenge

A student raises his hand to ask a question of the NCAS Green Team
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Kim Orr

Today, on the fourth and final day of the NCAS on-site experience, students had one more challenge before the scores were tallied. They had five minutes to make a presentation to a mock "NASA Headquarters panel” about why their rover mission should be green-lighted. Channeling their inner Steve Jobs, the teams used music, videos, lighting and of course their rovers to make their case.

The Gold Team impressed with their marketing video that used two LEGO figurines (borrowed from their mentor) to tell a story about two people on a quest to add a rover to their family.

The Gold Team presents their mission
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Kim Orr

The Red Team started their presentation with a dance and later presented “scholarship certificates” from their reserved education budget to the JPL Education Office staff and other NCAS helpers.

The Red Team presents their mission
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Kim Orr

The Blue Team got laughs for a slide on their mission objectives, which was introduced by audio of Lakers basketball star Kobe Bryant saying, “Success on success on success.”

The Blue Team presents their mission
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Kim Orr

And the Green Team, which took the either coveted or dreaded task of being first to present, showcased their teamwork by sharing the stage to present the various facets of their mission.

The Green Team presents their mission
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Kim Orr

When presentations were over, it was time for the customary group photos and then perhaps the hardest part of the on-site experience: dismantling the rovers and packing up.

The Spring 2016 NCAS group poses for a photo on the mall at JPL
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Kim Orr

A member of the Red Team deconstructs the team's rover
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Kim Orr


Wednesday, April 13


6:30 p.m. - Mission Two

It’s less than an hour away from the second and final mission for the teams' rovers. Tonight, the rovers must autonomously retrieve and rescue a stranded “Mars Buggy” from the simulated Mars surface. While the challenge involves a different set of commands and even changes in the design of the rovers, the lessons students learned from last night’s mission are ever present. We asked the teams to share the single biggest lesson they’re taking into tonight’s challenge:

“If we try our best, we can succeed.” – #GreenTeam

The Green Team poses for a group photo in front of the Mars Curiosity rover model at JPL
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier


“Simplicity and planning are key.” – #BlueTeam

The Blue Team poses for a group photo in front of the Mars Curiosity rover model at JPL
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier


"No matter how much we plan for every scenario, at the end of the day, it's inevitable that mistakes will come up. As a team, we learned to push forward through the doubts and frustrations. For tonight, we will use this lesson to enhance our troubleshooting.” – #GoldTeam

The Gold Team poses for a group photo in front of the Mars Curiosity rover model at JPL
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier


“We must embrace the unexpected difficulties” – #RedTeam

The Red Team poses for a group photo in front of the Mars Curiosity rover model at JPL
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier

5:30 p.m. – Meet the Mentors

Each NCAS team works with a mentor who helps guide students with not just the mission at hand, but also their career missions. With four fully packed days of activities and challenges, it can be a big time commitment – especially since mentors are scientists and engineers themselves, and have their own missions and projects competing for their attention. But as we found out when we caught up with the mentors for this session, it’s well worth the hectic four days.

Amelia Quon - #BlueTeam

Amelia Quon helps a student on her team
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier

What do you do at JPL?

I am a mechanical integration engineer. My group builds the tools used to assemble and test spacecraft, as well as helping with the assembly and testing process. I’m currently working on a thermal-vacuum test where we’re using the 25-ft space simulator to mimic Martian atmospheric pressure, which is less than 1 percent of sea level atmospheric pressure on Earth.

How long have you been an NCAS mentor and what made you want to become one?

I’ve been an NCAS mentor since 2012. I enjoy helping the students gain confidence in their problem-solving skills as they work through the (rock and rover retrieval) missions. I participated in NASA’s High School Aerospace Scholars program as a high school student and had a great experience, so it’s nice to be able to support the program and help create similarly positive memories for the students.

How would you describe your mentoring style?

As a mentor, I try to clarify the parameters of the (rock and rover retrieval) missions for the students. I help them develop strategies for programming and building their rovers, and ask questions to encourage them to reason through problems they encounter.

What are some of the challenges or obstacles your team has faced so far and how are you overcoming them?

While testing their rover, my team discovered that many of the rocks they picked up were falling out of their basket. They went through several iterations of building and testing new designs before they came up with a design that performed as intended.

What do you most want students to take away from their experience?

I want them to realize that everyone on an engineering team is integral to the team’s success, and that setbacks and challenges can be overcome.


Luz Martinez Sierra - #GoldTeam

Luz Martinez Sierra speaks with students on her team
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier

What do you do at JPL?

I am in the Natural Space Environments group. We are in charge of defining the radiation and debris environment that the spacecraft will encounter in space. This is very important to evaluate the risks so the designer and engineers can take the necessary measurements to avoid any failure. I am also involved with the nuclear physics instruments that are used to determine the composition of other planetary bodies or to better understand the radiation environments in space. I am also a part-time Nuclear Engineering Ph.D student at Texas A&M. I am trying to finish my Ph.D while still being a full-time employee at JPL.

How long have you been an NCAS mentor and what made you want to become one?

This is the first time I’ve been involved with NCAS, and I am loving it.

How would you describe your mentoring style?

I think I can relate with the young student quite easily. I have a younger sister, and I have done mentorships in the past. I like to get to know students and make a safe environment for them to ask me questions and to not be afraid of participation. I like to show them a strong attitude without making them scared of me. I want them to feel like they are in a collaborative atmosphere. I don’t have all the answers, but I am there to guide them in finding the answers.

What are some of the challenges or obstacles your team has faced so far and how are you overcoming them?

We had a rough start with issues regarding the division of the work. There was not a clear line between who was in charge of what, and they were focusing in one task instead of approaching it at different angles. We talked, and I encouraged the project manager to assign responsibilities and to try to make sure they still communicate with the team promptly.

What do you most want students to take away from their experience?

I want them to feel comfortable with their career, and show them that it is possible to achieve their dreams. Also I want them to realize how much can be accomplished in a few days, and make them confident of their capabilities. I want to see them succeed in life and in a professional way. They are wonderful young adults ready to take the challenge. They just need to hear it and believe it.


Otto Polanco - #GreenTeam

Otto Palonco speaks with students on his team
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier

What do you do at JPL?

I am a mechanical engineer in the payload development group. I work with engineers across different disciplines to develop instruments and complete system payloads for various customers that come to JPL for this type of development.

How long have you been an NCAS mentor and what made you want to become one?

Since the beginning. Five years now. Wow. Already. Simple. When I was in High school, Dr. Jeff Martin, a principal for LAUSD, provided guidance on what college life was all about, how to be successful, and how to prepare for a career. Unfortunately, Dr. Martin passed away from cancer a year and a half later, but my time with him was invaluable, as he opened my eyes to the possibilities of what my future could be.

How would you describe your mentoring style?

Aggressive and hopeful, like Dr. Martin, but with a twist. No excuses. Failure is an option, but NO Quitting is permitted. I’m encouraging and pass on words of wisdom and lessons learned since my start as an intern here at JPL.

What are some of the challenges or obstacles your team has faced so far and how are you overcoming them?

Organization, laptop and programming the rover. They got organized by coming together as a team with a single leader and co-leader. Programming was done with paper and pen, then executed flawlessly when a laptop became available through great communication and team work. They have asked for help when they got stuck and/or looked bewildered. They are nervous, but they work hard and smile.

What do you most want students to take away from their experience?

Blow by the sky limit and reach for the stars. Do not place limits on what you and your future will accomplish.


Steve Edberg - #RedTeam

Steve Edberg speaks to his team
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier

What do you do at JPL?

My career has been “bipolar."  About half of the 36+ years I’ve been at JPL, I have worked on flight missions, from development to flight operations. The other half has been in education and public outreach. Both have been good for each other and for the projects I’ve worked on and the people I have interacted with.

How long have you been an NCAS mentor and what made you want to become one?

I have been a mentor for four or five sessions, starting in 2010 or 2011.

How would you describe your mentoring style?

For the competition, I help, encourage and suggest options. For the individuals on the team (and anyone else in earshot), I share experiences, suggest ways to successfully get into STEM as a career, and describe what we do as a human endeavor, including the anecdotes that prove it.

What are some of the challenges or obstacles your team has faced so far and how are you overcoming them?

There were not enough computers ready at the start of the design/build day. The Red Team agreed to wait for delivery of theirs, but that took much longer than expected, and it wasn’t ready to use and needed technicians to get the software working as designed. This delay strongly affected the software team and limited their ability to make a more complete set of command routines. The software team built sufficient routines for the rock retrieval challenge by making maximum use of the software and technology available for the challenge. To their credit, they did this on their own.

What do you most want students to take away from their experience?

I want them to remember this as a taste of the real thing. I want them to realize that finding what THEY want to do (individually) is what they should aim for, and that they should aim high.  They should come away knowing that space exploration, and each part of STEM, whether exploring space or not, is a wonderful, challenging, and joyous way to spend a lifetime.


2 p.m. - Networking Challenge

Students spent the morning touring the Space Flight Operations Facility, also known as mission control, and the Mars Yard, a simulated Mars terrain where engineers test maneuvers for the Curiosity rover.

NCAS students watch a show in the inflatable planetarium
Students also saw a show in our educational inflatable planetarium. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier

Then it was time to get up close and personal with the people of JPL during NCAS' first-ever Networking Challenge. Shannon Barger of JPL's Education Office came up with the idea for the challenge: "The best way to move forward [at JPL and in your career] is to get your name out there and have connections."

So, armed with questionnaires (that served as networking icebreakers of a sort) students caught up with JPLers as they were out in full: during lunch.

NCAS students networking during lunch at JPL.
Students participated in NCAS' first-ever Networking Challenge. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier

It turned out that JPLers were just as excited to talk to NCAS students as the students were to talk to JPLers. More than a few students were asked for their resumes and others left with promises to attend the presentations tomorrow. The students said they were impressed by the diversity of people and careers at JPL, which they learned can include such things as ripple effect engineering and planetary science.

NCAS students networking during lunch at JPL
Students went from table to table at the JPL cafeteria during lunchtime to ask employees about their careers and what inspired them. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier

"I love that you can go talk to anyone at JPL and they'll talk to you for an hour about what they do," said Scott Hall, a member of the Green Team who's studying mechanical engineering and physics at Ohlone College in Fremont, California.

Roslyn Soto and Eddie Gonzales, who manage the NCAS program for JPL, said they hope to make the challenge a regular part of the on-site experience.


Tuesday, April 12


9:35 p.m. – Mission One

After a full day of listening to inspirational speakers, building rovers, programming them and testing them, the teams were ready for their first mission. One by one, each team brought their rover to the mission site where they were given a two-minute trial run followed by one minute to make modifications to their rover. Once the modification window elapsed, teams had 10 minutes to command their rover to autonomously collect as many rock samples as possible.

Having completed the mission, teams retired for the evening, their scores to be calculated and added to the cumulative total at the end of the program.

A team's rover collects rocks on the simulated Mars surface
The gold team's rover collects rock samples during its 10-minute scored mission. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier

The green team cheers for their rover
The green team cheers as their rover returns a rock sample to home base. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier


5:45 p.m. – What's Your Strategy?

While each team has the same mission in mind, their approach and strategy can vary wildly. The team members’ personalities and experience, their mentor and any challenges they face along the way all make an impact on the outcome of their final mission. Tonight, the teams will compete in their first mission, which involves programming their rovers to autonomously collect and transport rock samples on the simulated Mars terrain. As the teams learned earlier in the day from Mars rover engineer Rob Manning, it all comes down to the team with the most thorough design and testing – plus a bit of luck. We wondered what each team's strategy or motto is going into the challenge, so we asked them to describe it in five words or fewer. Here’s what they said:

NCAS 2016 Red Team at JPL  “Every action requires team heart” – #RedTeam


NCAS 2016 Blue Team at JPL  “Simple, efficient, applicable, logical science” – #BlueTeam


NCAS 2016 Green Team at JPL  “Forward, drop, drag” – #GreenTeam


NCAS 2016 Gold Team at JPL  “Off-world specimen cache and retrieval” – #GoldTeam

Tell us which one is your favorite and wish them luck on Facebook and Twitter, using #NCAS2016 and the team hashtag.


3 p.m. – Their Mission, Should They Choose to Accept It

The blue teams discusses their project

The red team gathers to discuss their mission. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier

As soon as students arrived at JPL yesterday, they began working on what will be their mission for the next three days: building a working Mars rover prototype that can perform two separate missions on a simulated Mars terrain. The rover doesn't look like much. It's an amalgamation of LEGOs and a programming console. And the Mars terrain consists of red floor tiles with sand, colored rocks and a faux Olympus Mons. But despite the looks of it all, the challenge is just about as close as it gets to the real thing.

NCAS rover parts

Teams must use parts from a LEGO Mindstorm kit to design and build their rovers. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier

NCAS rover
The rovers must be able to successfully complete two mission challenges: collecting and transporting samples, and retrieving and rescuing a stranded "Mars Buggy." Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier

The students are divided into four teams, each lead by a JPL mentor, and are assigned project roles such as project manager, software engineer, even marketing and communications manager. On Day One, teams are given a $600 million budget to build a rover that can successfully complete two missions: gather and transport sample rocks, and later rescue and retrieve a stranded "Mars Buggy." They then have to design and build their rovers using a LEGO Mindstorm kit with various parts that are each assigned a dollar value. They are allowed to purchase and sell parts from other teams, but they can't exceed their budget. Monetary fines and bonuses are given for things like losing equipment (fine) or asking good questions (bonus). Teams are also awarded money for performing successful maneuvers during their missions.

NCAS budget
Students are given fines and bonuses that may help or detract from their overall mission budget of $600 million. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier

On the final day of their experience, teams will make final presentations to a mock NASA mission selection panel, during which they will have to explain their rover's scientific objective and sell their design.

"We push them to take on roles outside of their comfort zones, to speak up and have their voice heard and to learn from each other," said Roslyn Soto, who along with Eddie Gonzales helps manage the program for JPL. "We want students to have a good understanding of the kind of teamwork that is required in engineering and other STEM fields and walk away with a better understanding of the research and career opportunities available to them."


12 p.m. – Lessons from a Career Mars Rover Engineer

Rob Manning giving a talk during the NCAS Spring 2016 session

Mars rover chief engineer Rob Manning gives a talk to students. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier

The students took a break from building their rovers to hear a talk by Rob Manning, the chief engineer for the Mars Curiosity rover. Manning has been a Mars rover engineer since the Pathfinder mission of the 1990s, which landed Sojourner, the first rover ever on the Red Planet.

He shared his experiences designing and building rovers for NASA and how the process has evolved during his 35 years at the laboratory.

"Can you believe that JPL started building its first spacecraft the year I was born, 1958. These people were building spacecraft without the use of computers. Everything was done by hand. So if you wanted to design [a spacecraft], you had to draw out all the details on a piece of paper."

On building spacecraft for Mars, he said:

"What I like about building spacecraft for Mars is you can build it, design it, test it and launch it, and in seven months, it's on Mars. So the very same people who thought of it, can operate it."

Students used the opportunity to ask Manning about some of the more creative engineering solutions his teams have come up with over the years, such as the bounce landing used for the Spirit and Opportunity rovers.

"Back then people thought we were really goofy by doing that. 'So you're going to land how many times?' Imagine dropping your spaceship from 23 meters on another planet."

He stressed the importance of designing spacecraft with potential issues in mind, but said a lot of it comes down to luck.

"Sometimes you get lucky. And the trick is to design your systems so you think of these things. In many respects, what happens on the day of landing is out of our control. In some sense, the future has already happened because if it doesn’t work, it’s because of something we missed or we didn’t test ahead of time."


11 a.m. – Welcome NCAS 2016 Students!

NCAS Spring 2016 student teams discuss their project

Forty community college students are participating in the Spring 2016 on-site experience at JPL as part of NASA's National Community College Aerospace Scholars program. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lyle Tavernier

Forty community college students descended on NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory yesterday for a four-day experience and engineering competition hosted by NASA's National Community College Aerospace Scholars, or NCAS, program. The program, which consists of a five-week online course, webinars with NASA scientists and engineers, a project planning a mission to Mars, and the opportunity to qualify for a four-day on-site experience at a NASA center, is designed to give community college students a window into science, technology, engineering and mathematics careers at NASA. Of the nearly 300 accepted for the online workshop, 120 are invited for an on-site experience at a NASA center.

This week JPL, Johnson Space Center, Armstrong Flight Research Center and Stennis Space Center are hosting 40 students each for the Spring 2016 on-site experience, during which student teams will compete to win a fictional mission contract for a future Mars rover. Teams must design and build their rovers using a LEGO Mindstorm kit, test them on a simulated Mars surface and finally sell their mission concept to a panel of NASA experts. Each of the four teams at JPL is guided by a laboratory engineer, who will mentor them throughout the competition. 

Follow all the action this week here and on Twitter using the hashtag #NCAS2016.

TAGS: NCAS, Community College, Programs, Workshops, STEM, Robotics, Engineering

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Update – April 25, 2016: We've reached capacity for our Ticket to Explore event. All the tickets have been distributed via the website. However, there are more ways to explore JPL, including free tours, lectures and other events from our museum and educational partners.


JPL has announced a new approach to Open House, that one special weekend each year when the laboratory invites the public to discover all the ways it's exploring the solar system and beyond. It's called a Ticket to Explore JPL, and it will feature the same great exhibits, movies, talks and booths as Open House, but you must reserve a ticket to attend.

The tickets are free, but limited, and they will be distributed on a first-come-first-served basis starting April 25 on JPL's Special Events page. The maximum number of tickets per requester is five. And to enter JPL, you must have your ticket in hand along with a matching ID, if you are 18 or older. Tickets are not transferable.

› Learn more about the event on JPL News

TAGS: Open House, Ticket to Explore JPL, Events, Special Events, Tours, Public Events

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Decimals of the mathematical constant pi

Earlier this week, we received this question from a fan on Facebook who wondered how many decimals of the mathematical constant pi (π) NASA-JPL scientists and engineers use when making calculations:

Does JPL only use 3.14 for its pi calculations? Or do you use more decimals like say: 3.141592653589793238462643383279502884197169399375105820974944592307816406286208998628034825342117067982148086513282306647093844609550582231725359408128481117450284102701938521105559644622948954930381964428810975665933446128475648233786783165271201909145648566923460348610454326648213393607260249141273724587006606315588174881520920962829254091715364367892590360

We posed this question to the director and chief engineer for NASA's Dawn mission, Marc Rayman. Here's what he said:

Thank you for your question! This isn't the first time I've heard a question like this. In fact, it was posed many years ago by a sixth-grade science and space enthusiast who was later fortunate enough to earn a doctorate in physics and become involved in space exploration. His name was Marc Rayman.

To start, let me answer your question directly. For JPL's highest accuracy calculations, which are for interplanetary navigation, we use 3.141592653589793. Let's look at this a little more closely to understand why we don't use more decimal places. I think we can even see that there are no physically realistic calculations scientists ever perform for which it is necessary to include nearly as many decimal points as you present. Consider these examples:

  1. The most distant spacecraft from Earth is Voyager 1. It is about 12.5 billion miles away. Let's say we have a circle with a radius of exactly that size (or 25 billion miles in diameter) and we want to calculate the circumference, which is pi times the radius times 2. Using pi rounded to the 15th decimal, as I gave above, that comes out to a little more than 78 billion miles. We don't need to be concerned here with exactly what the value is (you can multiply it out if you like) but rather what the error in the value is by not using more digits of pi. In other words, by cutting pi off at the 15th decimal point, we would calculate a circumference for that circle that is very slightly off. It turns out that our calculated circumference of the 25 billion mile diameter circle would be wrong by 1.5 inches. Think about that. We have a circle more than 78 billion miles around, and our calculation of that distance would be off by perhaps less than the length of your little finger.

  2. We can bring this down to home with our planet Earth. It is 7,926 miles in diameter at the equator. The circumference then is 24,900 miles. That's how far you would travel if you circumnavigated the globe (and didn't worry about hills, valleys, obstacles like buildings, rest stops, waves on the ocean, etc.). How far off would your odometer be if you used the limited version of pi above? It would be off by the size of a molecule. There are many different kinds of molecules, of course, so they span a wide range of sizes, but I hope this gives you an idea. Another way to view this is that your error by not using more digits of pi would be 10,000 times thinner than a hair!

  3. Let's go to the largest size there is: the visible universe. The radius of the universe is about 46 billion light years. Now let me ask a different question: How many digits of pi would we need to calculate the circumference of a circle with a radius of 46 billion light years to an accuracy equal to the diameter of a hydrogen atom (the simplest atom)? The answer is that you would need 39 or 40 decimal places. If you think about how fantastically vast the universe is — truly far beyond what we can conceive, and certainly far, far, far beyond what you can see with your eyes even on the darkest, most beautiful, star-filled night — and think about how incredibly tiny a single atom is, you can see that we would not need to use many digits of pi to cover the entire range.

Read more from Marc Rayman on the Dawn Journal, where he writes monthly updates about the Dawn spacecraft currently exploring the dwarf planet Ceres to provide scientists with a window into the dawn of the solar system. 

Can you use pi like a NASA scientist?
› Take the Pi in the Sky Challenge!

TAGS: Pi, Pi Day, Dawn, Voyager, Engineering, Science, Mathematics

  • NASA/JPL Edu
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Women working in STEM at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory pose for a photo in mission control in honor of Women in Science Day.

In honor of the first-ever International Day of Women and Girls in Science -- designated by the United Nations to take place each February 11 -- more than 150 women working in science, technology, engineering and mathematics at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory posed for a photo in mission control.

To read some of their stories as well as those of JPL interns and fellows "daring mighty things," visit: 

TAGS: Women in STEM, Women in Science, Women at JPL, Women at NASA

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