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The valley networks on Mars are terrains eroded by flowing water billions of years ago.
In places where the bedrock is well exposed, we often see a variety of colors due to altered minerals and polygonal patterns perhaps due to wet, clay-rich deposits.
The University of Arizona, Tucson, operates HiRISE, which was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colo. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Project for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington.