This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft the valley networks on Mars are terrains eroded by flowing water billions of years ago. Where bedrock is well exposed, a variety of colors due to altered minerals and polygonal patterns.
Bedrock Exposures on the Floor of Bakhuysen Crater
This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft shows an exposure of bedrock on the floor of Bakhuysen Crater, an impact crater in Noachis Terra. The bedrock is highly fragmented and fractured.
This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft shows a roughly 3-kilometer impact crater, formed on the sloping walls of Tithonium Chasma, part of the large Valles Marineris canyon system.
A One-Kilometer Crater on the Floor of Saheki Crater
This image captured by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft shows several smaller craters that formed on the floor of Saheki Crater, an 85-kilometer diameter impact crater north of Hellas Basin.
Melas Chasma is the widest segment of Valles Marineris, the largest canyon in the Solar System as seen by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. In this region, hydrated sulfate salts have been detected.
Evidence Builds for Old Under-Ice Volcanoes on Mars
These mountains are in a region called Sisyphi Montes. The base image from NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey shows a portion of the region about 130 miles. Red outlines indicate possible subglacial volcanic structures. MRO's CRISM data are at upper right.
This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft was acquired to look for frost on these generally equator-facing slopes on Mars, which are visible in the shadows after enhancing the brightness levels.
This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter covers part of the chaotic terrain in Masursky Crater, and was targeted due to evidence that ejecta from Mojave Crater, to the south, may have modified the landscape.
Jezero Crater is candidate future landing site that contains sediments deposited by at least three ancient rivers as seen by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. There are some good exposures of ancient bedrock.
This image captured by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter covers the western rim of Holden Crater during northern summer. Since Holden Crater is in the Southern hemisphere of Mars, the shadows are long in northern summer (southern winter).
This image shows a set of coalesced collapse pits in western Valles Marineris as seen by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Fine layers are exposed in the walls of the pits, and in some places those layers are displaced by faults.
The North Polar layered deposits provide a record of recent climate changes on Mars as seen by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. Color variations between layers are due to differences in composition of the dust.
This image was targeted for NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft to look at a candidate new crater on a lobate apron. Such aprons are often ice-rich, but the crater shows no bright material that would indicate ice.
Alluvial fans are gently-sloping wedges of sediments deposited by flowing water. Some of the best-preserved alluvial fans on Mars are in Saheki Crater, seen here by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft.
This image captured by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft was taken to look at seasonal frost in gullies during southern winter on Mars, with the Sun only about two degrees over the horizon (just before sunset).
West of NASA's Curiosity landing site, this image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft along the northwestern floor of Gale Crater is between Aeolis Mons (informally called 'Mt. Sharp') and the crater rim.
NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter used its HiRISE camera to obtain this view of an area with unusual texture on the southern floor of Gale Crater. An enigmatic deposit appears to have flowed into the small crater from the south.