The central portion of this image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft features a mildly-winding depression carved by water. Helas basin was likely formed around four billion years ago by a giant asteroid or comet impact.
This region of Xanthe Terra has mostly been contracted due to thrust faulting, but this local region shows evidence of extensional faulting, also called normal faulting. This observation is from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft.
This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft covers mesas, or high-standing plateaus, to the north and pits, or low-standing, depressions to the south. What formed these mesas and pits is a question not so easy to answer.
Captured by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft, shown here are bizarre landforms in Gorgonum Basin. This basin may have contained an ancient lake, with channels draining into the lake from the sides.
One small section of this image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft shows boulders that have rolled down the slope of a crater wall. The boulders vary in size, with the largest one approximately 6 meters across.
Numerous Seasonal 'Lineae' on Coprates Montes, Mars
The white arrows indicate locations in this scene where numerous seasonal dark streaks have been identified in the Coprates Montes area of Mars' Valles Marineris by NASA's repeated MRO observations from orbit.
This observation from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft is of Noctis Labyrinthus, a highly tectonized region immediately to the west of Valles Marineris. It formed when Mars' crust stretched itself apart.
The giant sand dunes in Kaiser Crater, seen by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, experience gully erosion of the steep slip faces every year in late winter as the sun warms these slopes and seasonal carbon dioxide frost sublimates.
The dunes shown here, as seen by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft, form distinct dots and dashes. The 'dashes' are linear dunes formed by bi-directional winds, which are not traveling parallel to the dune.
Mars Atmospheric Temperature and Dust Storm Tracking
This graphic overlays Martian atmospheric temperature data as curtains over an image of Mars taken during a regional dust storm. Temperature data and global image were both recorded on Oct. 18, 2014, by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft.
Seasonal Temperature Pattern Indicating Martian Dust Storms
This graphic shows Martian atmospheric temperature data related to seasonal patterns in occurrence of large regional dust storms. The data shown here were collected by the Mars Climate Sounder instrument on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
These North Polar layered deposits, composed of ice, captured by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft, show what looks like drag folds, where rock layers bend (fold) before they break in a fault.
There is a circular feature in this observation from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft that appears to stand above the surrounding terrain. This feature is probably an inverted crater that was filled in with sediment.
This image captured by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft targets a 3-kilometer diameter crater that occurs within the ejecta blanket of the much older Bakhuysen Crater, a 150-kilometer diameter impact crater in Noachis Terra.
This image montage features a two-dimensional radar cross section of Mars' north polar cap collected by SHARAD instrument on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (top), and a color image mosaic of the polar cap from NASA's Viking project (bottom)