Much of Mars' surface is covered by fine-grained materials that hide the bedrock, but in this scene from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, the bedrock is well exposed except where covered by sand dunes.
This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows a new impact site originally detected by the Context Camera onboard MRO. The crater is on a dusty slope, which also has several dark slope streaks due to dust avalanches.
This image captured by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter covers a portion of a typical impact crater in Terra Sirenum. Some of the gully fans have a bluish color: these are probably quite recent deposits, less than a few tens of years old.
The broader scene for this image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is the fluidized ejecta from Bakhuysen Crater to the southwest. A 'dragonfly' impact crater i seen with a gouged-out trench extending to the south.
NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has witnessed many surface changes over the past ten years, including hundreds of new craters formed by ongoing impacts. This particular crater is east of NASA's Spirit rover's final resting spot in Gusev Crater.
A Nine Kilometer Impact Crater and Its Central Peak
This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveals an impact crater, nine kilometers in diameter, with a central peak. Impact craters of various sizes and ages can be found across the Martian surface.
NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has been observing Mars in sharp detail for more than a decade, enabling it to document many types of changes, such as the way winds alter the appearance of this recent impact site.
The Contrasting Colors of Crater Dunes and Gullies
Gullies are relatively common features in the steep slopes of crater walls, possibly formed by dry debris flows, movement of carbon dioxide frost, or perhaps the melting of ground ice, as seen by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter observed a small portion of a dark crater floor in the Tyrrhena Terra region of Mars. This is largely ancient hard bedrock that has been cratered by numerous impacts over the eons.
This photograph from northwestern New Mexico shows a ridge roughly 30 feet (about 10 meters) tall that formed from lava filling an underground fracture then resisting erosion better than the material around it did.
This anaglyph from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows part of Gordi Dorsum in the Medusae Fossae region of Mars, shows part of an area on Mars where narrow rock ridges, some as tall as a 16-story building.
This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows part of Gordi Dorsum in the Medusae Fossae region of Mars, where narrow rock ridges, some as tall as a 16-story building, intersect at angles forming corners of polygons.
NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spies a layer of dry ice covering Mars' south polar layer. In the spring, gas created from heating of the dry ice escapes through ruptures in the overlying seasonal ice, entraining material from the ground below.
The layered bedrock in this image was brought from several kilometers of depth during the formation of this 44 kilometer wide crater in the volcanic plains of Lunae Planum as seen by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.