The central portion of this image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft features a mildly-winding depression carved by water. Helas basin was likely formed around four billion years ago by a giant asteroid or comet impact.
This region of Xanthe Terra has mostly been contracted due to thrust faulting, but this local region shows evidence of extensional faulting, also called normal faulting. This observation is from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft.
This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft covers mesas, or high-standing plateaus, to the north and pits, or low-standing, depressions to the south. What formed these mesas and pits is a question not so easy to answer.
Captured by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft, shown here are bizarre landforms in Gorgonum Basin. This basin may have contained an ancient lake, with channels draining into the lake from the sides.
One small section of this image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft shows boulders that have rolled down the slope of a crater wall. The boulders vary in size, with the largest one approximately 6 meters across.
Numerous Seasonal 'Lineae' on Coprates Montes, Mars
The white arrows indicate locations in this scene where numerous seasonal dark streaks have been identified in the Coprates Montes area of Mars' Valles Marineris by NASA's repeated MRO observations from orbit.
This observation from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft is of Noctis Labyrinthus, a highly tectonized region immediately to the west of Valles Marineris. It formed when Mars' crust stretched itself apart.
The giant sand dunes in Kaiser Crater, seen by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, experience gully erosion of the steep slip faces every year in late winter as the sun warms these slopes and seasonal carbon dioxide frost sublimates.
The dunes shown here, as seen by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft, form distinct dots and dashes. The 'dashes' are linear dunes formed by bi-directional winds, which are not traveling parallel to the dune.
These North Polar layered deposits, composed of ice, captured by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft, show what looks like drag folds, where rock layers bend (fold) before they break in a fault.
There is a circular feature in this observation from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft that appears to stand above the surrounding terrain. This feature is probably an inverted crater that was filled in with sediment.
This image captured by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft targets a 3-kilometer diameter crater that occurs within the ejecta blanket of the much older Bakhuysen Crater, a 150-kilometer diameter impact crater in Noachis Terra.
This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft the valley networks on Mars are terrains eroded by flowing water billions of years ago. Where bedrock is well exposed, a variety of colors due to altered minerals and polygonal patterns.
Bedrock Exposures on the Floor of Bakhuysen Crater
This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft shows an exposure of bedrock on the floor of Bakhuysen Crater, an impact crater in Noachis Terra. The bedrock is highly fragmented and fractured.
This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft shows a roughly 3-kilometer impact crater, formed on the sloping walls of Tithonium Chasma, part of the large Valles Marineris canyon system.
A One-Kilometer Crater on the Floor of Saheki Crater
This image captured by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft shows several smaller craters that formed on the floor of Saheki Crater, an 85-kilometer diameter impact crater north of Hellas Basin.