|Mariner 2 (Artist's Concept)
NASA's Mariner 2 was the world's first successful interplanetary spacecraft. Launched August 27, 1962, on an Atlas-Agena rocket, Mariner 2 passed within about 34,000 kilometers (21,000 miles) of Venus.
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Mariner 2 became the first successful mission to another planet when it flew by Venus on December 14, 1962. The spacecraft made a number of discoveries about the planet and marked another first by measuring the solar wind, a constant stream of charged particles flying outward from the sun.
Five years later, Mariner 5 followed up on Mariner 2's study of Venus with a closer look at the planet's atmosphere.
- Microwave radiometer
- Infrared radiometer
- Three axis fluxgate magnetometer
- Cosmic ray detector
- Cosmic dust detector
- Solar plasma spectrometer
- Particle detector